In this episode of interrogating spaces, Dr Emily Salines takes us on an exploration of feedback practice, and how we might take a more compassionate approach.
The impact of feedback on student learning is well documented in educational literature. We also know that it is a critical area of practice where the emotional impact of assessment is at play. We speak with a number of practitioners, teachers and students to set out to map a framework for compassionate feedback practice and how we might enact it
The questions we are asking are:
This work is part of the QAA collaborative enhancement project on ‘Belonging through assessment: pipelines of compassion’ with UAL, Glasgow School of Art and Leeds Arts University.
Liz Bunting is an Educational Developer at University of the Arts London, where she co-leads a programme of educational development on Fostering Belonging and Compassionate Pedagogy. She supports colleagues in creating educational ecosystems that promote social justice through compassionate cultures, policies and practices. Her research investigates belonging, compassion and trauma informed care in Higher Education.
Vikki Hill is an Educational Developer: Attainment (Identity and Cultural Experience) in the Academic Enhancement Team at University of the Arts London (UAL). A Senior Fellow of the HEA, Vikki works with staff to support equitable outcomes and experiences for students. Vikki’s research is focused on educational development, compassionate assessment, pedagogies and policies through arts-based and posthuman approaches.
Dr Emily Salines is a former member of the Academic Enhancement Team at UAL, where, as Educational Developer she co-led the Enhancing Assessment for Equity strand of Academic Enhancement work until September 22. She is now Head of Education Programmes at Queen Mary Academy (Queen Mary University of London). Her research focuses on assessment design, assessment for social justice and approaches to compassionate feedback.
Dr Anna Troisi is Course Leader for the BSc Creative Computing at the Creative Computing Institute (CCI), UAL. Anna is a member of the UAL Ethics Research committee. Her initiatives to promote social justice with the introduction of non-violent communication enhanced students’ experience and enabled students’ agency in the curriculum.
Dr Victoria Odeniyi is a Decolonising Arts Institute research fellow where she leads the Reimagining Conversations research project which seeks to raise critical awareness of the educational and creative potential of the use of language. She has research and professional interests in educational inequality, linguistic diversity and institutionalised knowledge production and how these issues intersect with race and identity.
Simbi Juwon-Sulaiman: Graphic Communication, Central St Martins, UAL
Amina Akhmedova: Fine Art, Chelsea College of Arts, UAL
Welcome to interrogating spaces. A podcast that examines ideas around inclusivity and attainment in higher education. We speak with staff, students and practitioners to explore questions around democratic and decolonize teaching practices.Dr Emily Salines:
My name is Emily Salines, and I am an Educational Developer in the Academic Enhancement team at UAL. In this episode of interrogating spaces, we are looking at compassionate feedback. The impact of feedback on student learning is well documented in educational literature. We also know that it is a critical area of practice where the emotional impact of assessment is at play. The questions we are asking are how can we harness feedback to support learning in a way that does no harm and support students? How can we use feedback to foster belonging? And can compassion help us? And what would compassionate feedback look like? We start our conversation by defining compassion and compassionate feedback. Let's hear from Vicki Hill, who's an Educational Developer in academic enhancement at UAL and an expert and researcher on compassion and assessment.Vikki Hill:
Well, I think I think before before we define compassionate feedback, we want to define what we understand as compassion. And we've been taking Paul Gilbert's definition that compassion is about noticing distress and or disadvantage yourself or others and a commitment to take action to reduce it. So we're looking at compassion as a kind of form of activism. It's not just the, you know, feeling a sympathy or care or empathy or kindness, but it's the physical action doing something about it to alleviate that harm. And I think this is important when we are talking about compassion, because it does sometimes get conflated with quite kind of emotional, or, you know, touchy feely type things which which which it can be, I suppose, but but it doesn't have to be it can be very much about what is it that we can do through policies, practices, pedagogy, to reduce harm to take action and, and respond to that disadvantage that we're that we see. So compassionate feedback would be taking, taking this as part of how we design that and bringing the relational into these practices.Dr Emily Salines:
Here's Liz bunting, also an educational developer in academic enhancement at UAL, specialising in belonging and compassion.Liz Bunting:
Yeah, I think it's really important just to acknowledge the compassionate must extend to all members of our communities. And so we need to consider staff as well as students in this work. So when we're thinking about enacting compassionate pedagogical approaches, and that includes our feedback practices, that both sits within, and is supported by a wider ecology, of compassionate policy systems and practices, including leadership. So, you know, in that way, we should really be thinking of compassion as a collective rather than an individual act. To kind of add to kind of what Vicki was saying about you know, what, what does compassion mean in like a feedback context. There are a few scholars that I draw on which I find personally quite useful. I really liked the work of Professor Youssef wikid, who writes about how teachers can show compassion when they endeavour to see things from the students perspective. So really kind of responding to what the individual student is trying to accomplish, what their interests are, what their goals are. So we're seeing students for who they are. I also really resonate with Dr. Lin Underwood's definition of compassionate love, and that she talks about this as being a particular kind of love the centres on the good of others. And for me, that's really important when we're thinking about giving assessment feedback, you know, through our words where a tone and body language would you know, we can demonstrate a caring kind of a nourishing form of love and be kind of mindful and empathetic of students vulnerabilities and needs. I do want to highlight that that you know, doesn't mean that feedback has been positive. I don't think we should conflate compassion with being nice is Vikki was kind of saying you know, because if we don't explain how students see to approve then might actually exacerbate anxieties, which is kind of you know, antithesis of compassion. So you know, we, we need to be able to light the way forward as Pat Tunstall and Caroline Gipps would say.Dr Emily Salines:
Let's turn to Victoria Odenyi's definition of compassionate feedback. Victoria is an Applied Linguist. She has been exploring the experiences of international students and classroom practices which might impact and also benefit international students in particular. How can her work help us understand and enact compassion? Here she talks about the power relations at work in feedback.Victoria Odenyi:
Now, if we take essays or literacy practices in universities is, is where tutors or other staff would say, 'I know a good essay when I see one' or 'I know a good major project proposal when I see one'. I think that that's, that's fine. They're, you know, they're part of the institutional institutional practices themselves, but I think it's it's important in a role of tutors is to try and make explicit what they mean and the knowledge that they have. So I think that that's a quite a useful place to start when thinking about compassionate feedback. I also think another important place to start as again, if we think of the idea that compassionate feedback in fact, any kind of feedback takes place in amongst the other instance institutional practices and institutional discourses which necessarily involve power relations. And I think that therefore, for me, the role of the tutor as the authoritative figure the role of the tutor as the person with with the power, you know, whether they feel powerful or not in the wider Institute institution, I think is important in in, in giving feedback. And therefore, the kinds of questions that a tutor or ask the student or or vice versa can be really important.Dr Emily Salines:
Simbi Juwon-Sulaiman is a student of Graphic Communication at Central Saint Martin's UAL. Here, she reflects on the impact that the tutor has on her work.Simbi Juwon-Sulaiman:
When it comes to that project, I was like, Okay, let me just do whatever. Like, that is gonna get me a distinction. Like, it doesn't matter about like, what I want. It's just like, I felt like the assessments, for me has always been, like, playing the game, with like the teachers has always been like, okay, like, let me check what a individual teacher wants and because like, like the arts, and the creative industries is not just like maths, like, like, there's not just one answer, I find it difficult for me, it's actually like, to know that, okay? Why make it personal? Why not make it personal? Do I make it mainstream? Or do I, like try to fit inDr Emily Salines:
As Simbi suggests a student's understanding of what is or is not valued plays an important role in how they shape their work, how does feedback and more specifically its language contribute to this, Victoria has some important insights on the lack of neutrality of language and its potential impact.Victoria Odenyi:
I think, again, from my kind of linguistic bent, I think, an important point is that to make as a starting point is that no language is neutral at all. And therefore tutors and everyone displays their evaluation and their evaluative regimes through the language they use. They convey whether they are happy or less happy with a with a student's performance or the work presented or what's been written or what's been thread through a range of different semiotic resources. So language, but also body language, eye contact, intonation, whether our tone goes up or down and so forth. And I think, you know, that can be understood, I think, is an important part of, of, of compassionate feedback. Again, a, I suppose, a useful example might be, are you really going to use those colours? You know, that's not a, there's an implicit evaluation and feedback with emphasis on the word really, in that example, the tutor is more than likely saying, I think you should try something else. So they're not saying what the what the students should should try. They're giving the students space to explore. But there's a there's an evaluation in that in that use of language. So I think understanding that language in the classroom, whether it's a lecture, or a more open ended credit, that language is not neutral.Dr Emily Salines:
Let's hear from Amina Akhmatova, the fine art student at Chelsea College of Arts ual she reflects on her experience of crits and the impact on students confidence.Amina Akhmedova:
I feel like we didn't really get a good example of how the crits should be like, because we've been critting each other's work. Our course mates like I was I will be in pairs with someone or someone would be in pairs with me. So it would be just as giving sometimes just opinions, and which wasn't helpful at all and the end. But I, I would say, kind of what was disappointing is that tutor wasn't really navigating the process of crits. For instance, my classmate had an experience. When he got a crit, he was like talking about his peers, peers work. And when he got to his point, when he got to his work, the only thing that he got was, 'I just don't like it'. And there was nothing else said, and the tutor didn't comment or anything. And it just was left like that. And my classmate was obviously very disappointed, very disappointed. And the thing is, it's not about getting attention or anything, which is also important, but it is important. But there were several things, it wasn't helpful in terms of assessment, because the feedback and the assessment is the core of the course, it's like the one of the main things, which is something that helps you to improve your practice, something you really need to have, because you're in university, you need to be guided, you need to be supported. And when you don't get that, I think it's just, it just it shouldn't, it just doesn't work. And it shouldn't work like that. So, so yeah, when I think it's just not right to come in something based on your opinion, because it's more about the process. And some, and not like a finished product or what you like or even like it's just about how far the person came and what was done, and all that.Dr Emily Salines:
So how can we enact a feedback approach which is aware of the potential impact of language. Anna Troisi is Course Leader for the BSC Creative Computing at the Creative Computing Institute, UAL. Her exploration of nonviolent communication provides some useful pointers to start with what is nonviolent communication?Dr Anna Troisi:
So, non-voilent communication is also called compassionate communication. And this is abbreviated as NVC. So you will probably hear me talking about NVC, I'm referring to nonviolent communication. This is based on the ability that humans have to remain human, even under difficult conditions. NVC does not contain anything that is, it's really new, as it really sums up all the language practices that have been known for centuries. And the point of NVC is really to connect to one another in a more conscious way. So I would say that NVC can really guide in being good observers, first of all of what is around us, and also what is inside us, without reaching those very well known patterns of defending ourselves withdrawing, or attacking someone in the face of judgement and criticism. This is much more than a process or a language that you involves choices of wording, it is more a sort of ongoing reminder to keep our attention really focused on giving from the heart, and at the same time experiencing fully the joy that comes from reaching another person's life. And to arrive to a mutual desire to communicate with compassion.Dr Emily Salines:
Anna makes an important distinction between observation and evaluation and the need to remain neutral to enact compassion and the role that assessment criteria play in supporting this approach. Let's hear more from her now.Dr Anna Troisi:
Clearly, when we provide criticism to a student's work, we must evaluate the work against criteria. But my point is that we're not required to judge the work, we should only evaluate it. And the issue is that we tend to mix the observation of the students work with evaluation, quite often. An example is when we write in feedback, things like 'the visual presentation of your final piece could perhaps be stronger'. So here we are observing vaguely, we're not being very precisely in the observation and and the evaluation is embedded. It's there in the, together with the observation. So if we would need to transform this into a compassionate language, we would divide the observation from the evaluation. For example, we will start from just observing what is there and has to remain neutral. So the way how we express the observation has to remain neutral. Like 'I notice that your report includes a written explanation of the design process'. This is just an observation and it's neutral. And we would continue with evaluation saying, 'I think the diagram would have helped. I don't know the reader to access more clearly to your work'. We could also say, 'helping you to fully meet the third criteria called communication'. And this example, I'm also underpinning the evaluation on the criterion. So I'm dividing the observation at the start that remains neutral. I noticed that with evaluation where I'm saying how would have probably improved the work, and what is the criteria that is underpinned by my evaluation. So mixing the evaluation with the observation really adds a sort of a judgmental flavour instead of showing a purely neutral constructive intention. And the risk of inserting judgement is that judgement indicates sort of a opinionated and subjective comment. So when we judge, we really disconnect from the students. More importantly, the students start thinking that they produce work to please the tutor, which can be very risky and unjust. I'm telling you why. It is risky because students who try to please a tutor really do not gain skills for creative decision making. And it remains also unjust because underrepresented configury students, for example, should always be in a position to express themselves without any sense of having to please a tutor, we want that. This obviously would have the confidence and so purpose, but more importantly, inclusion in the community.Dr Emily Salines:
This question of inclusion and the sense of belonging brings us to the work of Liz bunting, why is a sense of belonging so key in compassionate approaches to feedback?Liz Bunting:
For me, when I think about belonging, I think about it being a really powerful effective state and one which drives human behaviour and plays a really instrumental role in student learning. And, you know, we have this really expansive evidence base that relates to belonging to the student retention, success and well being. And in my eyes, its pertinence is only really amplified in the current climate when we're experiencing the isolation and alienation of pandemics, wars and the climate crisis. And, and when I talk about sense of belonging, I'm referring to students feeling valued, respected, supported, and that they matter. And I think it's really important to acknowledge from the offset, there's no silver bullet, to kind of nurture belonging, you know, it's incredibly complex and dynamic state, which is continually negotiated, based on the signals that the individual is receiving. So it's going to wax and wane over time, and no student is ever going to experience belonging in the same way. But what we know, which can Vikky has alluded to, is that belonging is social and relational. And it's built in human connection. So the heart of promoting a sense of belonging through compassionate teaching and learning practices, including our feedback, our approaches that help us to build relationships in our learning communities. So you know, things that nurture supportive emotional learning climates and make space for our connectedness for our shared humanity, both with and between students, and, you know, that allow us to redistribute power and value diverse knowledge is to kind of promote that acceptance of being, you know, accepted for our authentic selves. So what we're trying to do is create compassionate conditions that acknowledge the structural oppression, and reduce its impacts on our students. And it's really through this process of noticing and acting to alleviate that distress that we can show students that they matter to us, which I think we often talk about, it's kind of like an into bell hooks concept of teaching, as as caring for the souls of our students.Dr Emily Salines:
So how do we enact compassionate feedback in a concrete way? Victoria has some suggestions when it comes to spoken feedback.Victoria Odenyi:
Compassionate feedback requires the experts or those in the position of power, whether that's students or peers to really think about, again, those tacit way of of giving and receiving feedback, the kinds of questions that are asked. So moving beyond yes, no questions. Was that interesting? Did you understand that? Does anyone have any questions? More often than not? The answer is yes. I did understand. No, I don't have any questions. So I think certainly risk taking and maybe going beyond probing. Okay, why was that interesting? On the point of the issue of risk taking, I think that that can take time, but figuring out what is in the students had, whether that's easily understood or not, I think is also part of the role of the tutor in in compassionate feedback. And yes, of course, that includes the questions that aren't that are asked, but the commitment to giving all students equal time.Dr Emily Salines:
Let's listen to Amina talking about a recent experience of feedback during the pandemic, which echoes Victoria's pointsAmina Akhmedova:
What Simbi said also just really also resonated with me about tutors, sometimes they just don't understand your work. If they did something that would understand your work, because that is very helpful. Because last year, I had a tutor - I don't think she really understood my work. And we, and because of also the pandemic, I've realised that art became more about thinking rather than making, it was more about talking. Because that was the most accessible thing. So I realised that like, actually, art is now not really about the physical work, it's about like talking and talking, which is good. But the thing is, like, I was creating a lot of physical work, and I was using the studio as much as I can, I was making the most out of it, because I was very inspired. And I love what I'm doing. And the and it wasn't just wasn't appreciated, because I realised that they saw that other students who aren't making that much work, which is, which is fine, They're in different process. But they will get like a better feedback than I would. And I just found that there was like, a bit unfair, you just described at this discrediting if that's the word, my work. For all the amount of work that I've done, and just not giving enough like it so that I was expecting something more, it just wasn't giving enough credit or attention to all the effort I was putting in, because, and I was really trying my best. And yeah, and I really, yeah, and I decided that if it doesn't work for me, I need to let you know, my teacher had a discussion. So I was saying that, like, I feel like my work isn't appreciated enough. And I just have a better feedback. And and I just when I was discussing that with her I wasn't making from the point for defensive point, 'you don't do it right then nanannanna and I paid so much for this university. And that's all I get' No, I realise that's not the way you talk as an adult. I know that. And I was just saying to her how it made me feel and how it affects my practice. And that I just said like, I feel like my work isn't appreciate it, appreciated it enough. And then I deserve a better feedback. And she she said that she heard me and I think it really improved the next further feedbacks I had. And I think it's very important to communicate, even if you don't have a compassionate like, if you don't have the feedback that you would expect to have, or you think you deserve to have. I think it's just important to communicate that. Because if you're not really doing anything about it, then it can just be continued to be that way. And how would, how would anyone know? Because it's the same tutor might work really well was for other students, like her feedback could be very helpful for other students who are more about thinking and more about like other things, but maybe she just doesn't didn't understand my work. And it's not always clicking. But I think it's just our own responsibility to make sure that it works for us and for our practice and just making the most out of it. Because three years is just like nothing. So yeah, I think we just should make all make sure that we have to get what we need to get. Yeah. And you know, of course, yeah, compassionate. I think it's also a part of compassion is just communication. And I think that is very important.Dr Emily Salines:
So what are Victoria's tips?Victoria Odenyi:
I'm not sure whether I have any tips or quick fixes, but I think spending some time on feedback and giving again, as I said early earlier, giving feedback and spending some time and investing in creating a welcoming space for all students, multilingual students, as well as as well as other marginalised students, I think will create an opportunity for more effective and more compassionate feedback. So as I said earlier, I think again, taking the time to figure out what might or might not be in the students head is where the compassion and the courage but also the commitment comes in. And by providing some kind of feedback or evaluative response beyond yes, no, that was good. Thank you, next student, in spite, you know, I understand how busy and pressured tutors are. So in short framing authentic questions moving beyond the yes, no, but also taking the time to give all students feedback equally, even when this might be more time consuming or challenging.Dr Emily Salines:
How can this welcoming space mentioned by Victoria be created, Simbi's's example of a good feedback and counter may be helpful here.Simbi Juwon-Sulaiman:
It's not like they were just like give me compliments those like, you know what we can offer you this. And we can also teach you how to do better in this department, like I see what you did there. I like your topics. But we can also like improve it here too. And because I don't want it to say just to be like, 'Oh, everything's nice, everything's perfect' is that actually, let's say that, let's say even if you can't help me, refer me to someone that can help me. Like, I think some teachers don't understand your work, and that is fine. But then I want someone that does to mark my work. And I want to feel like, like I'm seen that it's not just in my head. And I'm crazy. Because I guess in society, that's how like, like, creatives are seen as.Dr Emily Salines:
So how can we as tutors give feedback in which students feel seen and engaged in a meaningful dialogue? Here's Vikki.Vikki Hill:
Thinking around what compassionate feedback looks like and feels like, we've been doing quite a lot of work around respect and care and trying to kind of construct a design these spaces where the the relationships, that conflict can flourish within the relationships. So in really sort of practical ways, opening up conversations around how it feels, how does, you know how do students want their feedback to be given to them? What do they want feedback about? Talking about the kind of the emotional impact of the feedback with students as well, and surfacing these things so that we can, we can kind of build that trust together.Dr Emily Salines:
And here's Liz, from the point of view of belonging.Liz Bunting:
So when I'm shaping or giving feedback, there are kind of a few questions that I hold in my mind. So firstly, you know, how does the tone of that feedback demonstrate respect for the student as an active learner? So am I speaking similarly, as well to students who are getting higher grades as I am to those getting lower grades? And then also, you know, how does the feedback convey that I hold a student in high regard, you know, that I care about their learning, and I believe in them. And really being attentive to the fact that the words we choose really kind of might affect students identities. And then finally, you know, what agency voice and choice to students have in the feedback process to disrupt kind of these and dismantle these power hierarchies. So for example, have I invited the student to lead on the form and the scope of the feedback they desire, so it aligns to their goals, I'd also encourage kind of making space to model and foster compassionate feedback between students to support kind of peer and self assessment as well. So thinking about where the opportunities are to facilitate compassionate purchase to feedback in the studio and tutorials and quits. And also thinking about how we might promote self compassion by supporting students in recognising and celebrating their achievements. So learning a growth mindset alongside that, so we're mitigating against the effects of grades and feedbacks being a proxy for belonging. And I think Theo Gilbert's in some really brilliant work around this, you know, developing micro skills of compassion with students so it really encouraged looking at his website passion in higher education, which I think is full of brilliant ideas.Dr Emily Salines:
And are also has some suggestions based on nonviolent communication principles,Dr Anna Troisi:
trying to distinguish the observation from evaluation and this will be my first tip, as you probably noticed, another tip is connecting with your own feelings when you're writing the feedback. So when we see a student work that clearly is showing lack of engagement for example, we tend to feel frustrated and sad. And this is also I believe, is touching our personal area of competence around having being a good tutor, good enough tutor for the student. So sometimes we internally blame the students for not having attended or followed our instructions. Sometimes we are tired, we can be tired, have other home personal issues that affect us while writing a feedback. So our feelings are always externalised in the way how we write and this is absolutely natural. But it's important that we acknowledge it and we do something with it. So my tip is to analyse your feedback after you write it. And to be specific, and neutral when we write the feedback we have to understand our inner feelings and obviously make sure that they do not get in the way so rechecking the feedback the day after. For example, ask yourself, do you say who's the first person because that's a it's actually a sign of going out of the scope because feedback is not about ourselves. It's or our expectations. It's more about it's just actually about a piece of work that was Alpha authored by a student. But other tips that underpin on MVC will be to be very precise and avoid all tentative wording that can create confusions like perhaps maybe could, might and ask yourself if the students really really needs your your perhaps. So avoid all words can be that can be avoided, and neurodiverse students as well as students with English as a second language with benefit from this, as well as all the other students. Also avoid adverbs and superlatives that have detrimental connotation like, unfortunately, or this work is excellent. I try really to remain neutral because we don't want to show we don't want to show our upset or our excitement when we write feedback, I would add a last tip here. ask the students to write feedback to you using the same tips. So teach your students to distinguish observation from evaluation during crates, committee reports or students survey. This will really help them to appreciate your efforts to forge an environment free for judgement. So my tip here just to summarise our distinguished observation from evaluation, or knowledge or knowledge in your feelings, avoid tentative wording or adverbs, superlatives with judgmental connotation and obviously involve the students.Dr Emily Salines:
This co-construction is also key for Victoria.Victoria Odenyi:
So in summary, for me, compassionate feedback is where a tutor can take risks. And they show that they demonstrate that they care and have commitment, but also good effective communication. In addition to competence in their specialism or subject area, I think the fact that tutors are highly trained specialists is a given. But compassionate feedback can also be understood as an academic practice that is CO constructed by the tutor and by the learner. So by the learner, their histories, the languages they they use, where they've come from, what resources they bring their identities, and what they bring into the classroom, but also compassionate feedback, effective compassionate feedback is constructed by the tutor as an authority figure. And therefore such an approach takes time and cannot be rushed.Vikki Hill:
I think I could talk about it in the kind of a personal way in terms of maybe how I think about it, if I'm writing feedback for students, which would be I talk quite a lot about love letters, and trying to hold that person sort of in my mind or my heart, really, when I'm writing about them, and then thinking about what's important to them. What is it about them that special? What have they done it, you know, I know it's really been challenging for them, or that they've really kind of, you know, the kind of challenges the the hurdles that they've kind of overcome in their work. And I try and write to that. So becomes quite kind of a special process. But I also recognise that that is a luxury to take time to be able to do when you have, you know, if you have 100 students this this moves into a different area. So how can we recreate that in a different way thinking through policies and systems that could support that in a in a much more effective way. So this sort of the burden doesn't rest on academic staff alone to try to do this, because it's this. There's a lot of pressure and time to do that. So we've been thinking more around, you know, what, what ways that we can kind of introduce, you know, co constructed feedback, working with students together to try and think around, bringing in those compassionate voices in credits and assessment and formative, the other formative assessment really focusing on that much more than this written summative thing that kind of is there at the end.Dr Emily Salines:
So there have been a lot of suggestions on ways of enacting compassionate feedback. In this podcast, it is clear that time and space are essential. As noted by our last two speakers, it seems therefore important to conclude this discussion with Vicky's point about finding ways of supporting staff and creating compassionate structures, systems and policies moving away from the individual practice to collective institutional responsibility for compassion. I would like to thank all the participants in this podcast for the insights and compassionate feedback. As Liz mentioned, there is no silver bullet and tutors and students will have different ways of achieving feedback exchanges where students feel supported. We hope that listening to the ideas and suggestions made by Vicki Liz Victoria, Anna, Amina and Simbi will prompt reflection and discussions for colleagues as a develop the feedback practice.Vikki Hill:
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